Relative Clause

Sentence pattern
Sentence pattern

What is Relative Clause?

Relative Clause is used when you describe nouns.

Adjectives are the handy ones to describe nouns, but you can say much more complicated things if you use Relative Clause.

There is Relative Clause in English too.

The difference between that and that in Japanese is where Relative Clause is placed.

Let’s check it out.

Relative Clause in English

The format of Relative Clause in English is:

‘noun + who (which, where or when) + sentence’


  • boy who can speak Japanese
  • pasta which I made yesterday
  • park where I play soccer

Bold: noun
Yellow underline: sentence

Relative Clause in Japanese

What you need to remember when you translate Relative Clause into Japanese is:

  • Sentence comes first, then noun;
  • The sentence must finish with Plain Form;
  • You don’t have to translate who (which, where or when).


  • 日本語を話すことができる男の子
  • 私がきのう作ったパスタ
  • 私がサッカーをするこうえん

Bold: noun
Yellow underline: sentence


Task: Change into Japanese.

  • the boy who eats sushi
  • the subjects that I study this year
  • the animals which sleep on a tree
  • the country where people speak Japanese
  • the day when I go to Melbourne

Extension task: Change into Japanese.

  • the house which Tom bought
  • the town where I live
  • people who can speak English
  • the letter which my father wrote to me
  • the meal that my younger sister prepared
  • the man who does not work
  • the supermarket where I work
  • the country I go to next month
  • the country I have been to
  • the bus I get on at 7 o’clock every day
  • the classroom where I study on Monday
  • the girl who is good at playing tennis
  • the person who is reading a book at a library

Task: Change into English.

  • きのう読んだ本
  • デパートでふくを買う人
  • プールでおよいでいる人
  • 朝ごはんをつくるサービス
  • クリスマスに父からもらったプレゼント
  • 母と飲むお茶


Relative Clause in a sentence

The relative clause is considered one big group in a sentence.

Example 1

My younger brother ate the pasta which I made yesterday.


Example 2

The car which my father drives is Honda.



Task: Change into Japanese.

  • The school which I go to is Tokyo High School.
  • My father drinks the beer which I bought at a supermarket last week.
  • The subjects that I study next year are Japanese, science and English.
  • I lost the pen which my friend gave me as a birthday present.

Task: Change into English.

  • これは私がきょ年日本で買ったくつです。
  • と書かんで本を読んでいる人は父です。
  • ここに来る人たちの30パーセントが日本人です。
  • 知らない人と話してはいけません。
  • ゲームをしながら歩く人がたくさんいます。
  • コンピュータを使う学校がふえています。